____What happens to electrons as they are transported along the electron transport chain?
     a) they lose energy
     b) the gain energy
     c) they are pumped into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes
     d) they combine with O2 and protons to form water

____The electron transport chain is driven by two products of the Krebs cycle-
     a) oxaloacetic acid and citric acid                                  c) NADH and FADH2
     b) H2O and CO2                                                             d) acetyl CoA and ATP

____In the first step of aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid from glycolysis produces CO2, NADH, H+, and
     a) citric acid           b) acetyl CoA         c) oxaloacetic acid              d) lactic acid

____Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between
     a) two phosphate groups                   c) ribose and a phosphate group
     b) adenine and ribose                       d) adenine and a phosphate group

____Glycolysis uses energy from two molecules of ATP but forms ___ molecules of ATP.
     a) two                   b) three                   c) four                        d) eight

____Which is produced in the aerobic breakdown of a glucose molecule?
     a) water                b) oxygen               c) light                        d) alcohol

____An important molecule generated by both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation is
     a) ATP                b) NADH              c) CO2                     d) NAD+

____The Net Number of ATP molecules made directly by glycolysis is
     a) 2                      b) 6                       c) 32                         d) 38

____Which of the following is Not a product of the Krebs cycle
     a) ATP                b) ethyl alcohol            c) CO2              d) FADH2

____By accepting electrons and protons, the oxygen used in aerobic respiration turns into
     a) CO2                 b) H2O                    c) C6H12O6                  d) ATP

____The term "aerobic" in aerobic processes means the process requires
     a) ATP                 b) oxygen            c) carbon monoxide                 d) lactic acid

____The anaerobic process of splitting glucose and forming two molecules of pyruvic acid is called
    a) fixation           b) fermentation           c) lactic acid            d) glycolysis

____In the _______ acetyl-CoA combines with a 4-carbon molecule to form a 6-carbon molecule.
     a) Krebs cycle     b) electron transport chain       c) Calvin cycle    d) thylakoid membranes

____The process by which food molecules are broken down to release energy is called
     a) fermentation           b) respiration              c) transpiration                 d) digestion

____The two end products of alcoholic fermentation are
     a) ethyl alcohol and pyruvic acid                          c) carbon dioxide and glucose
     b) ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide                      d) pyruvic acid and glucose

____Lactic acid fermentation forms lactic acid from
    a) carbon dioxide         b) pyruvic acid          c) sodium hydroxide            d) citric acid

____The anaerobic pathways provide enough energy to meet all of the energy needs of
      a) all organisms                              c) all unicellular and most multicellular organisms
      b) no organisms                              d) many unicellular and some multicellular organisms

____Glycolysis takes place
   a) in the cytosol                                 c) only if oxygen is present
   b) in the mitochondria                        d) only if oxygen is absent

 ____The process of glycolysis and anaerobic pathways is called
    a) aerobic respiration          b) fermentation           c) glycolysis               d) cytosol

____The product of acetyl CoA and oxaloacetic acid is
   a) NAD+               b) kilocalorie               c) citric acid              d) fermentation

____The location of electron transport chain in prokaryotes
   a) cytosol             b) mitochondria           c) nucleus                  d) cell membrane

____Yeast produce alcohol and CO2 in the process of
   a) lactic acid fermentation                               c) alcoholic fermentation
   b) aerobic respiration                                      d) glycolysis

____What is the process by which glucose is converted to pyruvic acid
   a) electron transport        b) aerobic respiration            c) glycolysis             d) photosynthesis

____During glycolysis, glucose is
     a) produced from two molecules of pyruvic acid
     b) converted into two molecules of ATP
     c) partially broken down and some of its stored energy is released
     d) partially broken down and its stored energy is increased

____The electron transport chain of aerobic respiration
     a) generates O2 from H2O
     b) produces NADH by chemiosmosis
     c) pumps electrons into the mitochondrial matrix
     d) pumps protons into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes

____In cellular respiration, the most energy is transferred in which step?
    a) glycolysis         b) electron transport chain             c) Krebs cycle             d) fermentation

____What is the Krebs cycle?
     a) the second phase of anaerobic respiration
     b) the first phase of aerobic respiration
     c) the second phase of aerobic respiration
     d) the third phase of anaerobic respiration

____The conversion of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and ethanol is called
    a) lactic acid fermentation    b) alcoholic fermentation     c) gasohol conversion     d) glycolysis

____The release of energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen is called
a) lactic acid fermentation                                       c) aerobic respiration
b) alcoholic fermentation                                        d) anaerobic respiration

____Both lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation produce
     a) a two-carbon molecule from a six-carbon molecule
     b) CO2 from a three-carbon molecule
     c) ATP from ADP and phosphate
     d) NAD+ from NADH and H+

____In alcoholic fermentation, ethyl alcohol is produced from
     a) NAD+          b) NADH             c) lactic acid               d) pyruvic acid

____A reactant in glycolysis is
     a) ethyl alcohol          b) glucose         c) pyruvic acid                   d) lactic acid

____The Krebs cycle
     a) breaks down a two-carbon molecule into two molecules of CO2
     b) produces a six-carbon molecule from six molecules of CO2
     c) produces NAD+ from NADH and H+
     d) generates most of the ATP produced in aerobic respiration

____The breakdown of organic compounds to produce ATP is known as
     a) cellular respiration                                            c) alcoholic fermentation
     b) lactic acid fermentation                                     d) photosynthesis

____Glycolysis begin with glucose and produces
     a) PGAL         b) lactic acid           c) acetyl CoA                   d) pyruvic acid

____The starting substance of the Krebs cycle, which is regenerated at the end of the cycle, is
     a) acetyl CoA             b) pyruvic acid            c) oxaloacetic acid              d) citric acid

____The efficiency of glycolysis is approximately
     a) 0.35 %                    b) 3.5 %                     c) 35 %                            d) 350 %

____Processes that occur in the absence of oxygen are said to be
     a) aerobic                b) acidic               c) mitochondria                  d) anaerobic

____In the first step of aerobic respiration, pyruvic acid binds to a molecule called
   a) acetyl-CoA                b) NADH              c) ATP                             d) coenzyme A (CoA)

____The breakdown of pyruvic acid in the presence of oxygen is called
   a) glycolysis           b) fermentation          c) aerobic respiration         d) anaerobic respiration

____Which of the following is an electron acceptor?
   a) cytosol              b) NAD+                 c) citric acid                     d) cell membrane

____The first pathway of cellular respiration is called
     a) fermentation            b) aerobic respiration           c) glycolysis        d) anaerobic respiration

____Which of the following is a unit of energy?
     a) kilocalorie              b) cytosol                    c) glycolysis                    d) NAD+

____The breakdown product of glucose that diffuses into the mitochondrial matrix for further breakdown is
     a) acetyl CoA          b) pyruvic acid         c) oxaloacetic acid               d) citric acid

____The energy efficiency of aerobic respiration (including glycolysis) is approximately
     a) 7 %                      b) 50 %                    c) 66 %                                d) 100 %

____Cellular respiration in the presence of oxygen is called
     a) fermentation         b) anaerobic respiration        c) glycolysis           d) aerobic respiration

____In the presence of oxygen _____ molecules of ATP can be formed.
     a) 2                   b) 19                   c) 38                           d) 63

____ATP stores energy in
     a) ADP           b) adenine        c) phosphate-phosphate bonds            d) ribose

____An end product of alcoholic fermentation is
     a) glucose             b) oxygen        c) carbon dioxide              d) lactic acid

____Aerobic processes require _____ in order to take place.
     a) sunlight             b) water             c) oxygen                 d) carbon dioxide

____ATP molecules produced during aerobic cellular respiration
     a) remain in the mitochondria in which they are formed
     b) are stored in chlorolplasts of the same cell in which they are formed
     c) enter the cell's cytoplasm through membranes of the mitochondria in which they are formed
     d) are distrubuted by the bloodstream to all cells in the body

____Cellular respiration takes place in two stages:
     a) glycolysis and fermentation                              c) Stage 1 and Stage 2 of photosynthesis
     b) glycolysis, then oxidative respiration               d) oxidative respiration, then reproductive respiration

____Acetyl-coenzyme A
     a) is formed from the breakdown of pyruvate                     c) enters the Krebs cycle
     b) can be used in fat synthesis                                             d) All of the above

____Water is an end product in
     a) lactic acid formation                                        c) fermentation
     b) The Krebs cycle                                               d) the electron transport system

____When glycolysis occurs,
     a) a molecule of glucose is split                             c) some ATP is formed
     b) two molecules of pyruvate are made                  d) All of the above


The process by which glucose is converted to pyruvic acid is called _______________________________

The conversion of pyruvic acid to carbon dioxide and ethanol is called __________________________   _____________________________.

The release of energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen is called _______________________     _____________________________.

The first biochemical pathway of cellular respiration is called _____________________________________

The breakdown of pyruvic acid in the presence of oxygen is called ___________________  _______________________.

What is the scientific unit of Energy? _________________________________

Glucose molecules are converted into __________________   ________________ molecules in the process of glycolysis.

The breakdown of organic compounds to produce ATP is known as _________________________   _______________________________.

How is the synthesis of ATP in the electron transport chain of mitochondria similar to the synthesis of ATP in chloroplasts?

The fourth step of glycolysis yields four ATP molecules, but the net yield is only two ATP molecules.  Explain this discrepancy.

Under what conditions would cells in your body undergo lactic-acid fermentation?

Glycolysis produces only 3.5% of the energy that would be produced if an equal quantity of glucose were completely oxidized.  What has happened to the remaining energy in the glucose?

Explain the role of oxaloacetic acid with respect to the cyclical nature of the Krebs cycle.

What happens to electrons that accumulate at the end of the electron transport chain?

Where in the mitochondrion do protons accumulate, and what is the source of the protons?